12.4: History and Government

History and Government

–Early Peoples and Empires

  • Believed that earliest Slavs migrated from Asia and settled in Ukraine/Poland
  • They lived among migrating Celtic/Germanic
  • In AD 400s—AD 500s Slavs and Germanic groups moved southwestward
  • AD 500s Slavic Czechs settle in historic region of Bohemia
  • AD 700s Slavic groups settle Moravia was settled; they formed the great Moravia, a united empire that covered much of Europe
  • Slavic groups living on the Mountainous Balkan Peninsula created the states of Croatia, Serbia, and Slovenia; which was ruled by the Ottoman empire; they gave the name Balkan or “mountains”
  • While west Slavs started moving west because of Asian invasions, the east Slavs lived in the forests/plains of Ukraine and Belarus
  • One settlement here was Kiev on the Dnieper River; the region around here became known as Kievan Rus—earliest of east Slavic states
  • The land between the Carpathian mountains and the Danube river were conquered by Romans; there language and customs led to naming the area Romania
  • Frequent invasions prevented Romania from being unified until the 1100s
  • Eastern half of the Roman empire became know as the Byzantium empire; they lasted for thousands of years reshaping Rome
  • Byzantine missionaries spread eastern orthodoxy—a form of Christianity—across eastern Europe
  • The empire fell under the Ottoman empire

Conflict, Union and Division

  • Balkan Peninsula has long been a region of instability
  • Balkan slavs overthrew the Ottoman empire in the early 1900s but had a hard time uniting the region
  • Despite forming Yugoslavia, or land of the south slavs, cooperation proved challenges for Balkan nations
  • Balkanization- division of a region into smaller regions that are often hostile with each other, first arose from the results of bulkan wars
  • Eastern Europe had many battles during WW2; and underground group in Yugoslavia fought against Germany
  • After the war, Yugoslavia became a communist country
  • Eastern Europe fell under communist control of the Soviet Union at the end of the war
  • This division of communist east Europe and democratic west Europe brought about the cold war
  • In 1990s, Yugoslavia fractured along ethnic lines
  • Some republics declared independence, and ethnic hatreds sparked violence in Bosnia/Herzegovina/Kosovo
  • Policy called ethnic cleansing came—Serb leaders expelled or killed rival ethnic groups in these areas
  • International peacekeeping allowed these refugees back

A New Era

  • From the 1950s to 1980s, revolts against communist rule periodically swept eastern Europe
  • In 1989 public demonstrations led to the fall of the regions communist gov’ts
  • During the 1990s free elections installed democratic leaders, who encouraged the rise of market economics
  •  Some eastern European countries are growing closer to the rest of Europe; recently they joined the European Union

Boehm, Richard. World Geography and Cultures. Columbus, Ohio: McGraw-Hill, 2011. Print.

“Europe and cold war.” Photograph. Englishclass. np, n.d. Web. January 24, 2012

This entry was written by smusallam4ecspress and published on January 25, 2012 at 12:06 am. It’s filed under Uncategorized. Bookmark the permalink. Follow any comments here with the RSS feed for this post.

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