The Indus River is originated in the Tibetan Plateau. It is one of the longest rivers in the world, with a length of some 1,800 miles (2,900 km). Its total drainage area is about 450,000 square miles. It flows through flows through northern India and then southwest through Kashmir and Pakistan to the Arabian Sea; “the valley of the Indus was the site of an early civilization”. The major cities of Indus River Valley Civilization date back to around 3300 BC. Paleolithic sites have been found with the stone tools of cave dwellers dating back 15,000 years.There are 100,00 people directly dependent on the mangroves in the Indus River delta. Including fishermen, more than a million people are indirectly dependent on the mangroves. The Indus River delta is one of the driest on the Indian subcontinent, owing to the cyclones from the Arabian Sea. The extensive deforestation, industrial pollution and global warming are affecting the vegetation and wildlife of the delta.The Indus River is the most important water supply for Punjab and Sindh, needed for agriculture and food production for Pakistan.
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